Based on the syllabus of U.P. Law LL.M Prof Susan D. Villanueva, International Intellectual Property Law #universityofthephilippines

      i promised i would write something useful to internet users in order to justify my existence, and for students and faculty members who, because of the pandemic, are compelled to download materials online for academic purposes  – in particular, international “fair use” standards… i’m already working on it, hwag na kayo magalit:

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (Paris Text 1971)

     The countries of the Union, being equally animated by the desire to protect, in as effective and uniform a manner as possible, the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works…


      …have agreed as follows:


Article 10

     (1) It shall be permissible to make quotations from a work which has already been lawfully made available to the public, provided that their making is compatible with fair practice, and their extent does not exceed that justified by the purpose, including quotations from newspaper articles and periodicals in the form of press summaries.

      (2) It shall be a matter for legislation in the countries of the Union, and for special agreements existing or to be concluded between them, to permit the utilization, to the extent justified by the purpose, of literary or artistic works by way of illustration in publications, broadcasts or sound or visual recordings for teaching, provided such utilization is compatible with fair practice.

     (3) Where use is made of works in accordance with the preceding paragraphs of this Article, mention shall be made of the source, and of the name of the author, if it appears thereon.


Uruguay Round Agreement of the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade TRIPS (Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights)

Part II — Standards concerning the availability, scope and use of Intellectual Property Rights

Section 1: copyright and related rights

Article 9

Relation to the Berne Convention


2. Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as such.

   Article 10

Computer Programs and Compilations of Data

1. Computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under the Berne Convention (1971).


Article 13

Limitations and Exceptions

  Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.

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