thought for the day, the week, human beings as social beings, i’m paraphrasing, churva

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Thought for the day, the week, the last century or so, I’m paraphrasing from a translation: It is human beings who are the agents of history, not “The Laws of History” or even “the productive forces” or political parties, or “The Party” or any other such abstraction. HOWEVER, human beings are the agents of history not primarily as individuals, but as social beings. Consequently, people make history in the various social formations which constitute humankind as a species-being.

           A species-being, therefore (i’m paraphrasing), is a human being who raises himself/herself above his/her own petty personal interests, and recognizes in himself/herself the objective universal of being part of the human race, with the capacity to change history, and thereby transcends himself/herself as a finite being…

       (churva. i already simplified it and committed sacrilege. ngayon, isalin mo sa Filipino ang “species-being”: nilalang-na-alam-ang-kanyang-tungkulin-bilang-tao)

image credits as stated in the archives

Feb 23 Live-blog on #DefendPressFreedom here (comments section)

if on mobile device: Optionally, pls click “Listen in browser” on the soundcloud pod below to stream today’s theme, gospel choir version



Feb 23 Live-blog on #DefendPressFreedom here (see comments section below)



Time-bound (deadline 12 midnight Feb. 23, 2018) and

Topic-bound (should be related to class topics in the course Law on Mass Media as follows) :

1.the Constitution, or

2.the Bill of Rights, or

3.Philosophic basis for the guaranty of free speech, or

4.Ownership of the media, or

5.the free press clause, or

6.the free speech clause, or

7.the four components of freedom of expression, or


8.the right of the people to information provision, or

9.The right not to be forced to disclose the source (the Shield Law), or

10. right to freedom from  prior restraint, or

11.”chilling effect”, or

12.Libel or cyberlibel,


       related topics.

(Credits: Image right-clicked from the Philippine Collegian used here non-commercially for academic purposes)


Exams as scheduled

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     The first quarterly exams as scheduled in the syllabus,  and as reiterated this week, will push thru, for 25 points in 60-90 minutes (examinees who finish the exams early may go to their next class. Results will be released in the following meeting). 

     All class members, whether they’ve been absent or present or late,  

are responsible for all topics taken up in class.

    Class members who miss an exam will have zero points for their class standing unless they’ve earned points from bonus exercises provided earlier.