#Aleppo #StandWithAleppo & Protocol II (Protocol Two) of the Geneva Conventions

#Aleppo #StandWithAleppo

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 8 June 1977.

 “Part IV. Civilian Population       xxx

“Art 13. Protection of the civilian population

      “1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations. To give effect to this protection, the following rules shall be observed in all circumstances.

      “2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited.

       “3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection afforded by this part, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.


       “Art 14. Protection of objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population. Starvation of civilians as a method of combat is prohibited. It is therefore prohibited to attack, destroy, remove or render useless for that purpose, objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population such as food-stuffs, agricultural areas for the production of food-stuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies and irrigation works.


       “Art 17. Prohibition of forced movement of civilians:

 “1. The displacement of the civilian population shall not be ordered for reasons related to the conflict unless the security of the civilians involved or imperative military reasons so demand. Should such displacements have to be carried out, all possible measures shall be taken in order that the civilian population may be received under satisfactory conditions of shelter, hygiene, health, safety and nutrition.

       “2. Civilians shall not be compelled to leave their own territory for reasons connected with the conflict.”      

  Video produced by iTV news and posted by it yesterday. Warning: the first six seconds is jarring because the cameraman was running towards the ambulance. (the music on autoplay can be stopped simply by clicking the soundcloud pod below the video)

Embedded music in this site: Lyrics by Jose Javier Reyes; melody by Ryan Cayabyab; performed by the San Miguel Master Chorale; musical arrangement by Ryan Cayabyab; all used here non-commercially for academic purposes.

 (still a continuation of the Christmas playlist here.)

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